Note: This bibliography is still under development and should not be considered comprehensive. 

A – B – C  

Oliver E. Allen, “Kettering,” American Heritage of Invention and Technology, Fall 1996.

What French Motorists Say about Alcohol-Gasoline Motor Fuel Blends,” Washington, D.C.: American Motorists Association, Dec. 15, 1933.

American Petroleum Institute,“A Reply to The Deserted Village, No. 6 of the Chemical Foundation,” American Petroleum Industries Committee, 1935

_____ “Who would Pay for Corn Alcohol?, ” Iowa Petroleum Industries Committee, Des Moines, Iowa, 1933.

______ “The ABCs of Alky-Gas,” Iowa Petroleum Public Relations Committee, 1936, library, American Petroleum Instutute, Washington, D.C.

______ “Analysis of Technical Aspects of Alcohol Gasoline Blends,” Prepared by American Petroleum Institute Special Technical Committee, No. 216 in an unspecified series, undated, with memo dated April 10, 1933. Series 4, Box 52, Pew collection, Hagley Library, Wilmington, Del.

Aguilar, E. (2007) UN head calls for more biofuels research. Science Development Network, 15 November 2007. Available at:  (accessed 23 April 2012).

Asimov, I. (1986) The Most Common. American Way[s3] , May 27 1986

Automobile-Club de France (1902) Congress des Applications de L’Alcool Denature, 16 au 23 Dec. Paris. Automobile-Club de France, Paris.

Bailey, D.M. (1975) A Catalogue of Lamps in the British Museum. British Museum, London, U.K.

Bell, A. G. (1917) Prizes for the inventor: some of the problems awaiting solution. National Geographic, February 1917, pp. 131.

Bente, P. (1984) International Bio-Energy Handbook. The Bio-Energy Council, Washington, D.C.

George Basalla, The Evolution of Technology, (Cambridge University Press, 1988) p. 197.

Hal Bernton, Bill Kovarik, Scott Sklar, The Forbidden Fuel: Power Alcohol in the 20th Century (New York: Griffin, 1982).

Blakeslee, H. (1944) Way found to supply world with gasoline from plants. Washington Post, 9 April 1944, pp. B3.

Boletim Enfoque (2000)  Em 1927, O primeiro grande empreendimento brasileiro em alcool combustivel. Adone Vamous, Boletim Enfoque, June 2000, No. 7. Sao Paulo, Brazil.

T.A. Boyd, “Motor Fuel From Vegetation,” Journal of Industrial and Chemical Engineering 13, No. 9 (Sept. 1921), pp. 836 – 841.

T.A. Boyd, “Pathfinding in Fuels and Engines,” Society of Automotive Engineers Transactions, (April 1950), pp. 182-183

T.A. Boyd, Professional Amateur (New York: E.P. Dutton, 1957); also Rosamond Young, Boss Ket (New York: Longmans, Green & Co., 1961), 162.

John K. Brachvogel, Industrial Alcohol: Its Manufacture and Use, (New York: Munn & Co., 1907)

Brown, L. (1980) Food or Fuel: New Competition for the World’s Cropland.    Worldwatch Institute, Washington, D.C.

Brown, L. (2011) The new geopolitics of food. Foreign Policy, April-May, 2011.

Cleveland Discol (1935) The British alcohol motor spirit. London Times, 29 November 1935, pp. 13.

Coplans, M. (1928) Tetra-ethyl lead. British Medical Journal, 14 January 1928, pp. 74.

Crosby, A. W. (2006) Children of the Sun. W.W. Norton, New York .

Christy Borth, Chemists and Their Work (New York: Bobbs-Merrill, 1938).

Business Week, “Alky-Gas Flops in Sioux City, Business Week, July 30, 1938, p. 20; “Farm Crop Alcohol Blended into Auto Fuel,” Popular Mechanics, Oct. 1937; “Alky-Gas Gets Going,” Business Week, Dec. 25, 1937; “Blackstrap Alky-Gas,” Business Week, Sept. 9, 1939.

Congress des Applications de L’Alcool Denature, 16 au 23 Dec., 1902, Automobile-Club de France, National Agricultural Library collection, Beltsville, Md.

Lyle Cummins, Internal Fire (Warrendale, Pa.: Society of Automotive Engineers, 1989).


D – E – F   

Donald Despain, The One and Only Solution to the Farm Problem (New York: Vantage Press, 1956), p. 113.

Everett M. Dirksen, “The Congressional Front,” May 5, 1933, Dirksen Congressional Center archives, Peoria, Ill.

_____ “Why the Proposal to Blend Alcohol with Gasoline for Automotive Fuel is Simple and Practical…” Keystone Steel & Wire CO, Peoria, Ill.

H.B. Dixon, “Researches on Alcohol as an Engine Fuel,” SAE Journal, Dec. 1920, p. 521.

Graham Edgar, “Tetraethyl Lead,” paper to the American Chemical Society, New York, Sept. 3-7, 1951

Gustav Egloff, “Alcohol Gasoline Motor Fuels,” National Petroleum Association paper, April 21, 1933, Series 4 Box 52, J. Howard Pew papers, Hagley Museum and Library, Wilmington, Del.

Gustav Egloff, Motor Fuel Economy of Europe (Washington, D.C.: American Petroleum Institute, Dec. 1940).

Environmental Working Group (2004). Like Oil and Water: MTBE Contamination By State, Environmental Working Group paper. Available at: (accessed 23 April 2012).

Ethyl Corp, “Gasoline to Burn,” Ethyl News, March, 1943, p. 20.

Ferrett, G. (2007) Biofuels: crime against humanity. BBC News., 27 October 2007.

Mark Fiege  Republic of Nature (U.Washington Press, 2012)

Gabriel Farell Jr., Capt. Samuel Morey who built a Steamboat Fourteen Years Before Fulton, (Manchester, NH: Standard Book Co., 1915)

Farm Chemurgy Council, Proceedings of the Third Dearborn Conference, Farm Chemurgic Journal, National Farm Chemurgic Council, Dearborn, Mich.

E.C. Freeland and W.G. Harry, “Alcohol Motor Fuel from Molasses,” Part II, Industrial and Chemical Engineering News, July 1925, p. 717;

Al Frisbie, “The Old Alcohol Plant: Is there a Lesson There?” World-Herald Magazine, May 28, 1978

Homer S. Fox, “Alcohol Motor Fuels,” Supplementary Report to World Trade in Gasoline, Minerals Division, Bureau of Domestic & Foreign Commerce, Trade Promotion Series Monograph No. 20 (Washington, D.C.: Dept. of Commerce, May 15, 1925).

E.I. Fulmer, R.M. Hixon, L.M. Christensen, W.F. Coover in “The Use of Alcohol in Motor Fuels: Progress Report Number I, A Survey of the Use of Alcohol as Motor Fuel in Various Foreign Countries,” May 1, 1933, unpublished manuscript, Iowa State University archives.

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (2008) FAO’s views on Bioenerg. Available at: (accessed 23 April 2012).

Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (2010) Bioenergy and Food Security: The BEFS Analytical Framework. Environment and Natural Resources Series 16. UN FAO, Rome, Italy.

G – H – I   

Francis P. Garvan, “Scientific Method of Thought in Our National Problems,” Proceedings of the Second Dearborn Conference on Agriculture, Industry and Science (New York: The Chemical Foundation, 1936), p.86.

Augustus W. Giebelhaus, “Resistance to Long-Term Energy Transition: The Case of Power Alcohol in the 1930s,” paper to the American Association for the Advancement of Science, Jan. 4, 1979

C. Boyden Gray and Andrew R. Varcoe’s “Octane, Clean Air and Renewable Fuels” (pdf), (Energy Future Coalition, 2006)

R.B. Gray, “On the Use of Alcohol-Gasoline Mixtures as Motor Fuels,” unpublished, USDA, April 1933, National Agricultural Library, Beltsville, Md.

Katharine Goodwin and Charles E. Duryea, Captain Samuel Morey: The Edison of His Day (White River Junction, Vermont: The Vermonter Press, 1931)

Gomez, L.D., Steele-King, C.G. and McQueen-Mason, S.J. (2008) Sustainable liquid biofuels from biomass: the writing’s on the walls. New Phytologist 178: 473–485.

Harriman, Peter, The History of POET: Ethanol Pioneers. Online:

Michelle Heath, Towards a Commercial Future: Ethanol & Methanol as Alternative Transportation Fuels, Canadian Energy Research Institute, Study no. 29, Jan. 1989.

R.M. Hixon, L.M. Christensen, W.F. Coover in “The Use of Alcohol in Motor Fuels: Progress Report Number VI,” May 1, 1933, unpublished manuscript, Iowa State University archives, Ames, Iowa.

Horst Hardenberg, Samuel Morey and his Atmospheric Engine (Warrendale, Pa.: Society of Automotive Engineers, Feb. 1992), SP922

Rufus Frost Herrick, Denatured or Industrial Alcohol, (New York: John Wiley & Sons, 1907)

Harold Hibbert, “The Role of the Chemist in Relation to the Future Supply of Liquid Fuel,” Journal of Industrial and Chemical Engineering 13, No. 9 (Sept. 1921) p. 841.

E. Hubendick, “Use of Alcohol Motor Fuels in Sweden,” Petroleum Zeitschr. 26, No. 12, 3-9, 1930, cited in Hixon.

Thomas P. Hughes, “Inventors: The Problems they Chose, The Ideas They Have, and the Inventions they Make,” in Patrick Kelly and Melvin Kransberg, Eds., Technological Innovation: A Critical Review of Current Knowledge (San Francisco: San Francisco Press, Inc., 1978), 177.

Ind. Chimique, “Anti-detonants: leur emploi dans les carburants et leur danger,” Ind. Chimique, 1931, No. 208, p. 332, cited in Fulmer.

“Italian Congress of Industrial Chemistry,” Industrial & Engineering Chemistry, July 10,1924, p. 6.

J – K – L 

Johnson, V.E. (1915) Alcohol motors and the fuel of the future. In: Modern Inventions.  TC & EC Jack, Ltd., London, U.K., pp. 286 – 293.

Kaempffert, W. (1944) Science in review. New York Times, 9 April 1944, pp. E9.

C.F. Kettering, “The Fuel Problem,” undated, probably 1921, Kettering collection unprocessed, GMI.

Charles F. Kettering, “Studying the Knocks,: How a Closer Knowledge of What Goes on In the Cylinder Might Solve the Problems of Fuel Supply,” Scientific American, Oct. 11, 1919, p. 364.

Jamie Lincoln Kitman, “The Secret History of Lead,” The Nation, 20 March, 2000.

Kleiner, K. (2007) The Backlash Against Biofuels.  Nature Climate Change Available at: /full/climate.2007.71.html (accessed 23 April 2012).

Knothe, G. (2001) Historical perspectives on vegetable oil-based diesel fuel. Inform 12,1103–1107.

Bill Kovarik, Fuel Alcohol: Energy and Environment in a Hungry World, (London: International Institute for Environment and Development, 1982).

_____ “Charles F. Kettering and the Development of Tetraethyl Lead in the Context of Technological Alternatives,” Society of Automotive Engineers, Fuels & Lubricants Division, Historical Colloquium, Baltimore, Md. Oct. 17, 1994.

_____ “Henry Ford, Charles Kettering and the Fuel of the Future,” Automotive History Review, Spring 1998, No. 32,   7-27

_____ “Ethyl:  The 1920s Environmental Conflict Over Leaded Gasoline and Alternative Fuels,” Paper to the American Society for Environmental History Annual Conference March 26-30, 2003 Providence, R.I.

_____ “Special motives:  Automotive Inventors and Alternative Fuels in the 1920s,” Society for the History of Technology, Washington D.C., Oct. 19, 2007

_____ “History of Biofuels,” Chapter One, in B.P. Singh, ed.,  Biofuels Crops: Production, Physiology and Genetics, CABI, 2013.

_____ Ethanol’s first century: Fuel blending and substitution programs in Europe, Asia, Africa and Latin America. In: XVI International Symposium on Alcohol Fuels. Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, 2006.

_____ Looking South:  The world ethanol industry is booming – thanks to the Brazilian example.  Com Sciencia, Brazil, Fall 2006.

_____ Biofuels: the sequel. SE Journal, Summer 2009, p. 28.

Laurence, W.  (1940) Makes Coal or oil of grass in hour. New York Times, 13 September 1940, pp. 19.

London Times (1914) Alcohol motor fuel. London Times, 22 January 1914, pp. 10.

London Times (1921) Fuel from waste. London Times, 24 December 1921, pp. 14.

London Times (1902) The Kaiser’s new scheme.  Reprinted from New York Times, 24 April 1902, pp.  9.

Stuart Leslie, Boss Kettering (New York: Columbia University Press, 1983);T.A. Boyd, Professional Amateur (New York: E.P. Dutton, 1957)

C.E. Lucke, Columbia University, and S.M. Woodward, USDA, “The Use of Alcohol and Gasoline in Farm Engines,” USDA Farmers Bulletin No. 277, (Washington: GPO, 1907).

Lyman, F.   The gassing of America. Washington Post, 13 April 1990, pp. C5.

M – N   

Joyce Manchester, “Gasohol born in Ames, sold at service station,” Ames Daily Tribune, March 11, 1978.

Thomas Midgely, “Our Liquid Fuel Reserves,” Soceity of Automotive Engineers, Oct. 13, 1921; CF Kettering, “The Fuel Problem,” draft address, unprocessed papers, Thomas Midgely drawer, GMI Alumni Foundation Collection of Industrial History, Flint, Mich (cited as GMI).

Thomas Midgley, “Discussion of papers at semi-annual meeting,” SAE Journal, Oct. 1921, p. 269.

Thomas A. Midgley and T.A. Boyd, “Detonation Characteristics of Some Blended Motor Fuels,” SAE Journal, June 1922, page 451. Note: italics indicate a section used at the oral presentation at a June 1922 SAE meeting but not published in the SAE paper; oral presentation from Midgley unprocessed files, GMI.

Thomas Midgley and Thomas Boyd, “The Application of Chemistry to the Conservation of Motor Fuels,” Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, Sept. 1922, p. 850.

Thomas Midgley, Jr., “Tetraethyl Lead Poison Hazards,” Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, Vol. 17, No. 8 August, 1925, p. 827.

Samuel Moray “Patent for alcohol for burning fluid, carbureted,” March 17, 1834, US Patent Office

Motor Union (1907) Report of the Fuels Committee of the Motor Union of Great Britain and Ireland, London, 1907.

Munshi, K.M. (1952) Inaugural Address: The production and use of power alcohol in Asia and the Far East. Report of a seminar held at Lucknow, India, 23 October 1952.Organized by the Technical Assistance Administration and the Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East, United Nations, New York.

National Agrol Co. Try a Tankful – You’ll be Thankful. Sales brochure, William J. Hale collection, Michigan State University Archives, An Arbor, Michigan, USA. .

Navarro, M. (2009) City awarded $105 million in Exxon Mobil lawsuit. New York Times, 20 October 2009.

Col. Sir Frederic Nathan, “Alcohol for Power Purposes,” The Transactions of the World Power Congress, London, Sept. 24 – Oct. 6, 1928.

National Geographic, Vol. 31, Feb. 1917, p. 131.

New York Times, A blow at American oil.  New York Times, 15 January, 1903, pp. 9.

_______ “Launching of a Great Industry: The Making of Cheap Alcohol,” New York Times, Nov. 25, 1906, Section III p. 3.

_____  Potato alcohol vs Standard Oil. New York Times, 18 June  1905, pp. SM3.

_______ “Free Alcohol Distilleries,” New York Times, Sept. 13, 1906. The source of the statistic is U.S. Consul General Thackara in Berlin.

_______ “Auto Club Aroused over Alcohol Bill,” New York Times, April 26, 1906.

_____  ″The New Cheap Illuminant,” New York Times, May 25, 1906.

_____ “Tax Free Alcohol,” New York Times, May 22, 1906.

_____ “Future of Alcohol in the Industries,” New York Times Aug. 5, 1906.

_____ “Farmers Neglect Making of Alcohol,”New York Times, Dec. 23, 1907

_____  Floated to victory on a wave of oil. New York Times, 23 November 1918, pp. 3.

_____ Asserts Americans face oil shortage, New York Times, 3 May 1920, pp. 22.

_____  “Ford Predicts Fuel from Vegetation,” NY Times,  Sept. 20, 1925, p. 24.

_____ “Radium Derivative $5,000,000 an ounce,  Ethyl Gasoline Defended,” New York Times, April 7, 1925, p. 23

_____  “Work on New Type of Auto and Fuel,” New York Times, Aug. 7, 1925; also “New Auto, Fuel to Save Costs are Announced,” United Press, Aug. 6, 1925.

_____  Use vegetable waste to make motor fuel. New York Times,  28 November 1927, pp. 2.

_____ Brazil seeks to cut gasoline payments. New York Times, 11 January 1931, pp. 60.

_____ Ford predicts new era of prosperity. New York Times, 4 June 1938, pp.  2.

NY World  “U.S. Board Asks Scientists to Find New ‘Doped Gas,’” New York World, May 22, 1925, p. 1.

Stanton P. Nickerson, “Tetraethyl Lead: A Product of American Research,” Journal of Chemical Education 31, (November 1954), p. 567.


O – P – Q 

W.R. Ormandy, “The Motor Fuel Problem,” Journal of the Institute of Petroleum Technologists, Vol. 5, 1919, p. 33-66.

Pischinger, G. and Pinto N.L.M.  (1979) Experiences with the Utilization of Ethanol. Third International Alcohol fuels symposium, Asilomar, California.

S.J.W. Pleeth, Alcohol: A Fuel for Internal Combustion Engines (London: Chapman & Hall, 1949) .

Pratt, W.B. (1945) Our oil and natural gas reserves. In: Fanning, L.M (ed.) Our Oil Resources.  McGraw Hill Book Co. Inc., New York, N.Y.

–  R – 

Reed, T.B.  (1975)  Use of Alcohols and other synthetic fuels in Europe from 1930-1950. Impact of methanol fuel on urban air pollution. American Institute of Chemical Engineers, Boston, Massachusetts , USA, 7 September 1975, paper 31-C.

Reese, E. T.  (1956) Enzymatic hydrolysis of cellulose. Applied Microbiology 4, 39–45.

Conger Reynolds, “The Alcohol Gasoline Proposal,” American Petroleum Institute Proceedings, 20th Annual meeting, Nov. 9, 1939.

Joseph C. Robert, Ethyl: A History of the Corporation and the People Who Made It (Charlottesville, Va.: University Press of Virginia, 1983)

David Rosner and Gerald Markowitz, Dying For Work: Workers Safety and Health in the Twentieth Century (Indianapolis: Indiana University Press, 1986).

Ricardo, H.R. (1921) The Influence of various fuels on engine performance.  Automobile Engineer, February, 1921.

Ricardo, H.R. (1923) The High Speed Internal Combustion Engine. Blackie & Son, Ltd., London, U.K.

–  S – T   –

Salameh, M.G. (2004) Oil crises, historical perspective. In: Cleveland, C.J. (ed.) Encyclopedia of Energy. Elsevier Academic Press, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

A.W. Scarratt, “The Carburetion of Alcohol,” SAE Journal, April 1921.

Sam H. Schurr and Bruce C. Netschert, Energy in the American Economy 1850 – 1975; An Economic Study of its History and Prospects (Baltimore, Resources for the Future, Johns Hopkins Press: 1960).

Victor H. Scales, Publicity Director, American Petroleum Industries Committee, “Economic Aspects of Alcohol-Gasoline Bleds,” API, May 1, 1933

SAE Journal,  “Alcogas as Aviation Fuel Compared with Export Grade Gasoline,” SAE Journal, June 1920, p.397.

_____ “Power Alcohol from Tubers and Roots, SAE Journal, May, 1925, p. 546.

Society of Automotive Engineers, The Ricardo Story: The Autobiography of Sir Harry Ricardo, Pioneer of Engine Research. SAE Historical Series, Society of Automotive Engineers, Warrendale, Pennsylvania, USA,

Scientific American, “How Long the Oil Will Last,” Scientific American, May 3, 1919, p. 459.

_____ “Alcohol as a fuel for motor carriages,” Scientific American, June 1, 1901, p. 344.

_____ “Alcohol Automobiles at the Paris Alcohol Exhibition,” Scientific American, Dec. 28, 1901.

_____ “Paris Exhibition of Alcohol Consuming Devices,” Scientific American, Nov. 16, 1901

_____ “Seaweed as a Source of Alcohol,” Scientific American, Nov. 9, 1918, p. 371.

_____ “The declining supply of motor fuel. Scientific American, 8 March 1919, pp. 220.

_____ Recent patents on mixed fuels. Scientific American,11 December 1920, pp. 593.

_____ “Power Alcohol: Not yet feasible or necessary in U.S.,” Scientific American, April, 1942.

Smith, G.O. Where the world gets oil and where will our children get it when American wells cease to flow? National  Geographic, February 1920, pp. 202.

Starbuck, A. (1878) History of the American Whale Fishery from its Earliest Inception to the Year 1876. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C.

Steiger, P. (1974) Army lab finds gas substitutes.  Washington Post, 5 May 1974, pp. K5.

William Stephenson,  A Man Called Intrepid (New York: Ballentine, 1976). Note: on p. 284 Stephenson says the British considered Standard Oil “a hostile and dangerous element of the enemy” in the years before WWII.

John Staudenmier, Technology’s Storytellers (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1988), p. 175.

Robert M. Strong, “Commercial Deductions from Comparisons of Gasoline and Alcohol Tests on Internal Combustion Engines,” Dept. of the Interior, U.S. Geological Survey, Bulletin 392, (Washington: GPO, 1909).

G.J. Shave, “Fuel Mixtures on London Omnibuses,” SAE Journal, Dec. 1920, p. 556.

R.M. Strong and Lauson Stone, “Comparative Fuel Values of Gasoline and Denatured Alcohol in Internal Combustion Engines,” Bureau of Mines Bulletin No. 43, (Washington: GPO, 1918).

Redwood, Boverton, et al, “The Production of Alcohol for Power,” Chemical Age, 1919, cited in Chemical Abstracts, 13:2271

H.R. Ricardo, “The Influence of Various Fuels on Engine Performance,” Automobile Engineer, Feb., 1921.

Time (1940) Recipe for fuel. Time Magazine, 23 September 1940.

Robert N. Tweedy, Industrial Alcohol (Dublin, Ireland: Plunkett House, 1917).

B.R. Tunnison, Industrial and Engineering Chemistry, 1921, p. 370.

U – V 

US Bureau of Mines, “A Report of Fuel Research by the Research Division of the Dayton Metal Products Co. and the U.S. Bureau of Mines,” July 27,1918, Midgley unprocessed files, GMI.

US Congress,

Report of the Joint Select Committee on Alcohol in the Manufactures and Arts. US Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C..

_____  Free Alcohol Law, Senate Finance Committee Hearings on HR 24816, Feb. 1907, Doc. No. 362.

_____  Free alcohol hearings, U.S. Senate 1907, p. 320.

_____ Free Alcohol Hearings, House Ways & Means Committee, 59th Congress, Feb.-Mar. 1906.

_____  Statement of Leonard B. Goebbels, Otto Gas Engine Works, Senate Finance Committee hearings on HR 24816, Feb. 1907.

_____   “Utilization of Farm Crops,” Hearings of a Subcommittee of the Committee on Agriculture and Forestry, United States Senate, S. Res. 224, (1942), Part I, p. 286.  Statement of L.M. Christensen,

_____ “Use of Alcohol from Farm Products in Motor Fuel,” Committee on Finance, U.S. Senate Hearings on SB 522, May 1939 (Washington: GPO, 1939)

US Federal Trade Commission, Docket No. 2825, Cushing Refining & Gasoline Co., June 19, 1936, Dept. of Justice files, 60-57-107, National Archives, Washington, D.C.

U.S. Public Health Service, Proceedings of a Conference to Determine Whether or Not There is a Public Health Question in the Manufacture, Distribution or use of Tetraethyl Lead Gasoline, PHS Bulletin No. 158, (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Treasury Dept., August 1925).

U.S. Tariff Commission, Industrial Alcohol, War Changes in Industry Series, Report No. 2, (Washington, GPO: Jan. 1944).

United Nations (1952) The production and use of power alcohol in Asia and the Far East. Report of a seminar held at Lucknow, India, 23 October 1952.Organized by the Technical Assistance Administration and the Economic Commission for Asia and the Far East, United Nations, New York.

Voosen, P. (2011) No eureka moments in long U.S. campaign to crack cellulosic code. New York Times, 13 July 2011.

W – X – Y – Z    

Wall Street Journal (1923) Teagle states gasoline is 36 cents in Havana. Wall Street Journal, 15 March 1923.

Washington Post (1916) How we eat wood and wear it. Washington Post, 17 December1916, p. MT5.

Washington Post (1916) Sees use for breweries; Ford would have plants make denatured alcohol for autos. Washington Post, 14 November 1916, p. 2.

Washington Post (1906) President flays the Oil Trust. Washington Post, 5 May 5 1906,  p.1.

Washington Post (1906) With the automobilists. Washington Post, 22 May 1906, p. 8.

Washington Post (1929) Farm relief through chemistry. Washington Post, 12 September 1929   p.66.

N. P. Wescott, Origins and Early History of the Tetraethyl Lead Business, June 9, 1936, Du Pont Corp. Report No. D-1013, Longwood ms group 10, Series A, 418-426, GM Anti-Trust Suit, Hagley Museum & Library, Wilmington, Del.

Reynold Millard Wik, “Henry Ford’s Science and Technology for Rural America,” Technology and Culture, Summer 1963.

Harold F. Williamson & Arnold R. Daum, The American Petroleum Industry, 1859-1899, The Age of Illumination (Evanston Ill NW U Press, 1959).

Welsbach Gas Co., History of Light, Philadelphia Penn, 1909, on file in the Smithsonian collection of Advertising, Museum of American History, Washington, D.C.

Winchester, S. (2008) The Man who loved China. Harper Collins, New York. .

G.W. Monier-Williams, Power Alcohol:Its Production and Utilization (London: Oxford Technical Publications, 1922)

David E. Wright, Agricultural editors Wheeler McMillen and Clifford V. Gregory and the farm chemurgic movement, Agricultural History, 22 March 1995, Vol. 69, No. 2, ISSN: 0002-1482, p 272.

 M.C. Whitaker, “Alcohol for Power,” Chemists Club, New York, Sept. 30, 1925. Cited in Hixon, “Use of Alcohol in Motor Fuels: Progress Report No. 6,” Iowa State College, May 1, 1933.

Daniel Yergin, The Prize, (NY: Simon & Schuster, 1991), p. 14, also p. 51.

Neil Young Waging Heavy Peace (NY: Penguin, 2012)

Rosamond Young, Boss Ket (New York: Longmans, Green & Co., 1961)

Ray Zirblis, “Was Samuel Morey Robbed?” Vermont Life, Autumn, 1994, p. 53.


————————–  Bibliographic notes ————————–




Oral histories 

C.S. Mott, Kettering Oral History Project, Interviewed by T.A. Boyd, October 19, 1960, GMI, Flynt, Mich.

Cases in Law 

Ethyl Gasoline Corp. et al, v United States, 309 US 436, March 25, 1940.

Major archival collections  

• J. Howard Pew papers, Hagley Museum and Library, Wilmington, Del. —  Hundreds of memos on the organization of the anti-alcohol campaign originating from API’s various committees, including the industries, public relations and refinery committees, are found in Series 4 Box 52 at Hagley.  Memos prepared by the “Special Technical Committee” and the “Special Economics Committee” show an intense level of activity. Every major American oil company and most minor ones were involved in the campaign against alcohol fuel through these committees, either directly or indirectly. It is interesting to note that the position papers presented by these committees contained no references and tended to be uniform in perspective.

• US National Archives, Washington, DC — US Dept. of Justice Central Files, RG 60-57-107.  Most of the files from the Ethyl anti-trust investigation are missing.

• Kettering University, Unclassified files of Thomas Midgley,  General Motors Institute Alumni Foundation Collection, Flynt Mich. This 80 linear foot collection has changed the picture of how tetraethyl lead research was approached.

Before 1925:  Some 152 popular and scholarly articles under the heading “Alcohol as a Fuel” can be found the the Readers Guide to Periodical Literature between 1900 and 1921; about 20 references to papers and books written before 1925 are found in the Library of Congress database catalog; a 1933 Chemical Foundation report lists 52 references before 1925 on alcohol fuels; a 1944 Senate report lists 24 USDA publications on alcohol fuels before 1920; and several technical books from the period document hundreds of references from the 1900 – 1925 period.